By Paul R. Gray
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Extra info for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
14b. For IE = 0 the collector-base junction breaks down at a voltage BVcBo, which represents collector-base breakdown with the emitter open. For finite values of IE, the effects of avalanche multiplication are apparent for values of VcBbelow BVcBo. 3 Large-Signal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors I I (b) BVCBO 21 transistor connection. (a) Test circuit. (b) Zc - V C B characteristics. gain a~ = Ic/IE becomes larger than unity for values of VCBabove about 60 V. Operation in this region (but below BVcBo) can, however, be safely undertaken if the device power dissipation is not excessive.
Thus changes in n p ( W B )directly affect the collector current, and the collector node of the transistor appears to have a low impedance. Thus from Fig. 3 Large-Signal Behavior o f Bipolar Transistors 17 Il Pnc P~E ,X Emitter Base Il ! 1 1 Carrier concentrations in a saturated npn transistor. ) current decreases because the slope of the carrier concentration decreases. This gives rise to the saturation region of the Ic - VCEcharacteristic shown in Fig. 12. The slope of the Ic - VCEcharacteristic in this region is largely determined by the resistance in series with the collector lead due to the finite resistivity of the n-type collector material.
The model topology is shown in Fig. 157) in saturation, ignoring the effect of channel-length modulation. 157) to find the drain current in saturation. 2 Comparison of Operating Regions of Bipolar and MOS Transistors Notice that the meaning of the word saturation for MOS transistors is quite different than for bipolar transistors. Saturation in bipolar transistors refers to the region of operation where both junctions are forward biased and the collector-emitter voltage is approximately constant or saturated.
Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits by Paul R. Gray