By D. Riddoch
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Extra info for Aids to the Examination of the Peripheral Nervous System
This technique has been of use in identifying the precise focal origins of epileptic seizures, and, as I hinted above, it has also been used to map areas of the somatosensory cortex. In-vivo imaging The ﬁrst of the in-vivo imaging techniques, computer tomography (CT) scanning, came on stream in the early 1970s. As technologies developed, and the value of scanning became clearer, it was soon followed by other procedures 19 INTRODUCING NEUROPSYCHOLOGY including PET (positron emission tomography), rCBF (regional cerebral blood ﬂow) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
G. Wickelgren, 1997). I describe this and other similar work in Chapter 7. Interim comment The development of in-vivo scanning marked the beginning of a new era in brain research. For the ﬁrst time scientists could examine the structure or functioning of the living brain. It became possible to see exactly how extensive a patient’s internal brain injury or damage was, and researchers could begin to do valuable brain research in individuals with ‘intact’ brains. By using special ‘labelling’ techniques it even became possible to observe for the ﬁrst time where in the brain drugs were acting.
Surface recording is possible because the electrochemical activity of the brain is conducted passively through the meninges (protective membranes surrounding the brain), and the skull to the scalp. The recorded voltages represent the summed activity of millions of neurons in the area of brain closest to the recording electrode so, in order to get an idea about the spatial distribution of activity, several separate channels of EEG corresponding to electrodes in different positions on the head can be recorded simultaneously.
Aids to the Examination of the Peripheral Nervous System by D. Riddoch