By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This functional instruction manual brings jointly a variety of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for each day use by way of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a few of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the equipment on hand for his or her prediction, detection and review. it is going to even be worthwhile to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference handbook.
record of critical Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain thoughts
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain evaluate
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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This sensible instruction manual brings jointly quite a lot of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. basically destined for daily use through subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anywhere they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes some of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and evaluate.
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Additional resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
1. THE OVERBURDEN EFFECT (UNDERCOMPACTION) Before explaining the phenomenon in detail, note that the principle behind the overburden effect arises from the balance between overburden pressure and the ability of a given formation to expel water. When sediments compact normally, their porosity is reduced at the same time as pore fluid is expelled. 17 shows the established porosity vs. depth relationship for argillaceous 31 Porosity O h + -+ _____ ....... -- - -D I i , Permian Pennsylvania and Oklahoma (Athy) Lias Germany (Won Engelwardt) Miocene and Pliocene Po Valley (Storer) Tertiary Gulf Coast (Dickinson) Tertiary Japon (Magara) Joides i Fig.
Probable porosity and pressure distribution in a shale/sand series during compaction (Magara, 1974, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists). 35 The mechanism for expelling water from clays towards porous reservoirs is the same as that for a fluid to migrate towards zones of lower resistance to flow. As expulsion rate is at a maximum close to drains, the early stages of this process lead to compaction in the immediately adjacent clay beds. The resulting reduction in porosity and permeability retards further fluid expulsion.
32. - Diagrammatic development of a residual shale mass (BnJce, 1973, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists) A. 6, C, D : successive stages of the mechanism. Although the importance of gravity in the development of growth faults is undisputed, trigger mechanisms are still open to debate. Basement tectonics, gravitational slumping of the sediments, salt or clay diapirism, differential compaction or a combination of these factors have all been suggested. CRANSef a/.
Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation by Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet