Download e-book for iPad: A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years by Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin

By Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin

ISBN-10: 0299048349

ISBN-13: 9780299048341

The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.

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It was generally accepted that if a man had sons, one of them was his heir, but in the eleventh century the idea of primogenitu{e was by no means absolutely accepted. If the eldest son looked unpromising as a warrior; the vassals felt free to choose one of his younger brothers. If the two eldest sons were twins, the fief might be evenly divided between them. When a man died leaving a son under age, who cared for the fief and performed the service due from it ? Sometimes it was the nearest male relative on the mother's sid~, sometimes on the father's side.

I n eleventh-century France the benefice had become the hereditary fief. Although the office of count was not absolutely hereditary, a· competent heir was practically certain of the inheritance. When an office changed hands, this was less likely to be the result of royal action than of the successful aggression of a powerful rival. Moreover, during the ninth and tenth centuries when civil war combined with Viking raids to keep France in a . < . J .. Ch. I WESTERN EUROPE ON THE EVE OF THE CRUSADES II state of anarchy, the landholders had but two practical alternatives.

This gave the pope an effective veto on archiepiscopal elections and a chance to instruct the new prelate. In theory it had always been possible to appeal a decision rendered by an archbishop's court to the papacy, but the journey to Rome was long and costly and only the rich could make such an appeal. The reformers established a system by which cases could be heard by local prelates appointed by the pope. If anyone wanted to appeal a case to the papal court, he wrote to the pope asking him to appoint delegates to hear the appeal.

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A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years by Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin

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